‘It’s like what occurred to the dinosaurs 65 million years back,’ DeGregori says. ‘Dinosaurs had been great and they weren’t changing that fast – they were well adapted with their landscape. Until that darn meteor. Suddenly what was fit was no more fit. The species didn’t need to modification their mutation rate – it had been the new scenery that drove speciation. Likewise, what primarily drives malignancy rates higher as we age is the changed scenery.’ Our healthful cells are optimized for the circumstances of our healthy, more youthful tissue.The root cause is chronic contact with particulate matter, most often cigarette smoke. While the reason behind emphysematous destruction of the alveoli is likely due to a combined mix of the cytotoxic and proinflammatory activity of cigarette smoke, it really is unknown whether cigarette smoke itself can cause thickening of the airway wall space. We aimed to examine whether cigarette smoke extract alters the ECM deposited by major human lung fibroblasts, and if smoke-induced ECM can transform proliferation and cytokine discharge, wrote Mr. Krimmer. We also investigated if the discharge of pro-fibrotic cytokines from fibroblasts were increased by cigarette smoke exposure. The researchers examined the response of individual lung cells from donors with and without COPD to cigarette smoke extract .